Anemia is a group of clinical and hematological syndromes characterized by a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood with a simultaneous decrease in the number of red blood cells.
The diagnosis of anemia is made on the basis of a decrease in hematocrit or hemoglobin content in the blood: for men below 42% and 130 g/l, for women below 37% and 120 g/l, respectively. Doctors often start Neurobene for a quick recovery.
Moderate anemia is characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin from 119 to 90 g/l for women and from 129 to 90 g/l for men. The average degree of anemia regardless of gender is characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin from 89 to 80 g/l. In severe anemia, hemoglobin decreases less than 60 g/l.
Anemia is widespread, affecting approximately one-fourth of the population and is common in general medical practice. The most frequent form of anemia, iron deficiency, averages 12% in Russia in children from 0 to 15 years old, and 73% of young children. High frequency of anemia is also noted in women of childbearing age and in the elderly.
CAUSES OF ANEMIA
The causes of anemia are varied and depend on the type of disease. The main ones are:
Impaired production of red blood cells by the bone marrow. This can be caused by cancer and endocrine disorders, kidney disease, chronic infections, protein depletion;
Lack of substances necessary for the production of hemoglobin: iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, in some cases, vitamin C, pyridoxine;
prolonged acute or chronic bleeding. The main parts of red blood cells are able to regenerate, but this does not apply to iron. Severe blood loss depletes its reserves in the body, which leads to anemia.
CLASSIFICATION OF ANEMIA
Anemia itself is not a disease, but it is a symptom of some diseases. Anemias are classified according to a single classification, the color index, which shows the level of saturation of the red blood cell with hemoglobin.
The following anemias are distinguished:
Iron deficiency anemia. It occurs due to a lack of iron in the body and is more of a symptom that signals the presence of other disorders. Food is the main source of iron. This type of anemia can indicate an insufficient or undiversified diet. Some people also have poor iron absorption, such as after major blood loss or removal of part of the stomach, in cancer, gastric ulcers, or other diseases.
Hemolytic anemias. In this condition, the life span of red blood cells is significantly shortened. Such anemia can be hereditary and acquired. In the first case, the problem lies in genetic abnormalities in the structure or function of red blood cells. Acquired hemolytic anemia develops as a result of excessive destruction of red blood cells due to antibodies, toxins and other factors. This form of anemia can be distinguished by a yellowish color of the skin. It appears due to an increase in bilirubin levels produced by the destruction of red blood cells.
Vitamin B12-deficiency anemia. Occurs because of a deficiency of vitamin B12, which is essential for normal maturation and growth of red blood cells in the bone marrow as well as stable nervous system function. You can suspect the disease by a tingling sensation and numbness in the fingers, a shaky gait. Pernicious anemia is caused by a lack of enzymes, due to which the stomach cannot absorb vitamin B12, the presence of parasites in the body, etc.
Folic deficiency anemia.
Each type of anemia has its own symptoms and peculiarities of the course of the disease. However, we can identify a number of common signs of anemia, including:
- Pallor of the skin;
- rapid fatigue;
- loss of appetite;
- Reduced ability to work and concentration of attention;
- headaches, tinnitus, flickers in front of the eyes;
- heart pain, occurring even at rest;
- dyspnea during minor physical exertion or at rest.
TREATMENT OF ANEMIA
The treatment regimen should be chosen by the physician based on the type of disease, its severity, and the results of diagnosis. For each type of anemia, the main areas of therapy can be distinguished. It is possible to buy the necessary medicines for anemia https://kaufspot.de.
Iron deficiency anemia:
Elimination of the cause of iron deficiency;
Adherence to a diet high in iron;
Taking iron preparations;
Red blood cell transfusions (for severe forms).
Hemolytic anemia (type of therapy depends on the cause of the disease):
- Administration of glucocorticosteroids for autoimmune causes;
- Administration of immunosuppressants;
- removal of the spleen;
- replenishment of enzyme deficiencies;
- plasmapheresis (removal of plasma containing toxic elements from the blood);
- transfusion of donor red blood cells;
- bone marrow transplantation, etc.
- Pernicious anemia:
- adherence to a diet;
replacement therapy with B12 preparations.
Sickle cell anemia (currently there is no treatment that will get rid of this disease once and for all, but patients need therapy to eliminate the symptoms and help prevent the formation of a large number of sickle-shaped red blood cells):
- Increasing the number of hemoglobin and red blood cells;
Elimination of excess iron in the body;
elimination of pain syndrome;
prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.