Pregnancy is a physiological process in which a new human body develops in a woman’s uterus, resulting from fertilization.
Pregnancy in women lasts an average of 280 days (40 weeks, which corresponds to 9 calendar months or 10 lunar months). It is also customary to divide pregnancy into 3 trimesters of 3 calendar months each.
Early pregnancy signs
In the early stages, pregnancy is diagnosed on the basis of doubtful and probable signs.
Doubtful signs of pregnancy – various kinds of subjective sensations, as well as objectively determined changes in the body, outside the internal genital organs: taste whims, changes in olfactory sensations, easy fatigue, drowsiness, skin pigmentation on the face, along the white line of the abdomen, nipples and areola.
Probable signs of pregnancy are objective signs on the part of the genitals, mammary glands, and in the setting of biological reactions to pregnancy. These include: the cessation of menstruation in women of childbearing age, an increase in mammary glands and the appearance of colostrum when squeezing out of the nipples, cyanosis of the mucous membrane of the vagina and cervix, a change in the shape and consistency of the uterus, an increase in its size.
You can preliminarily verify the presence of pregnancy at home using an express test for the content of the hormone chorionic gonadotropin in a woman’s urine (the test is carried out from the first day of the delay of the next menstruation).
Changes in the body of a pregnant woman
Numerous and complex changes occur in a woman’s body during pregnancy. These physiological changes create conditions for the intrauterine development of the fetus, prepare the woman’s body for the birth act and breastfeeding of the newborn. Menstruation stops, mammary glands increase in volume, nipples darken.
Many pregnant women in the first trimester have nausea, sometimes vomiting – these symptoms are usually called early toxicosis of pregnant women. Weakness, drowsiness, heartburn, salivation, change in taste, and increased urination are common. These disorders of well-being are characteristic for a healthy and normal pregnancy.
Especially great changes occur in the genitals of a woman. With each week of pregnancy, the uterus increases, the blood supply to the internal and external genital organs increases. The tissues swell, acquire elasticity, which contributes to their better stretching during childbirth. In the mammary glands, the number and volume of glandular lobules increase, their blood supply increases, they become tense, colostrum is secreted from the nipples. The amount of gonadotropic hormones, as well as estrogens and progesterone, produced first by the corpus luteum (a temporary gland formed at the site of the follicle from which the mature egg came out) and then by the placenta, sharply increases. The hormones secreted by the corpus luteum (progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogens) contribute to the creation of conditions for the proper development of pregnancy. The corpus luteum undergoes reverse development after the fourth month in connection with the formation of the hormonal function of the placenta.
To conduct pregnancy, it is necessary to register with a antenatal clinic (3 to 4 weeks after a delay in menstruation), where a doctor examines and examines the external and internal genital organs, and if necessary, additional examinations are prescribed.